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The South Historical Background

Prior to the 9th Century A.D., civilisation of the Malay peninsula consisted of a number of independent city-states: Pahang, Trengkanu, Kelantan, Tamphonling (present-day Nakhon Si Thammarat), Khorahi (Chaiya), Langkhasuka (in Malaysia), Keta (Sai buri), Kratak Kola (Takua Pa), and Panpala (in Myanmar). From the 11th-13th centuries, they were consolidated into a single mighty military and commercial power known as the Srivijaya Empire, with the capital city on the island of Sumatra. The population of Srivijaya was Buddhist and the remnants of this once-powerful empire, its ruins and artefacts, show a strong indian cultural influence.

After the disintegration of the empire in the 13th century, Nakhon Si Thammarat became an independent kingdom and extended its power over other cities in this peninsula before it was brought under the dominion of Ayutthaya in the 14th century.

During the early Rattanakosin period (early 19th century), the southern provinces remained largely autonomous under the control of principal governors. However, due to the dangers posed by Western colonial expansionism in South Asia, King Rama IV sought to enlarge his authority over the region and made two personal visits to the area to strengthen the relationship between the southern provinces and Bangkok.

The massive administrative reforms under King Rama V included the consolidation of the southern provinces into several regions with administrative contres at Phuket, Chumphon, Nakhon Si Thammarat and Pattani, each under the direct control of Bangkok.


 

 

 

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